@jdudleyk, I believe you found an answer to this question via a support ticket opened with us.
For other people reading this forum post, it is not possible to attach our Java agent a running JVM. The concept of 'Java agents' is broad and with some Java agents this is possible. With the New Relic Java Agent, the particulars of the agent's design require that it be included when the JVM is started. It cannot be attached to a running JVM, after it has already been started.
Without a way to configure JVM command-line options in some way (which does not appear possible with CloudHub at this time), our Java agent cannot be used.
Again, to anyone reading this, please let us know with replies here if you would like to see us support Mulesoft's CloudHub platform and we will enter a unique feature request on the behalf of each person that does so.